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IBM

IBM Corporation (International Business Machines) is an American computing technology company with offices all over the world. IBM builds and sells computer hardware and software and offers technology consulting services.

IBM was established in 1911 when the International Time Recording Company, the Computing Scale Company and the Tabulating Machine Company all merged to form the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR). In its first thirteen years, CTR used the name International Business Machines to designate its subsidiary companies in Canada and South America. In 1924 the company discarded the name CTR in favor of IBM for the entire enterprise.

IBM holds patents on hundreds of pieces of technology, spanning back to the 1890s and its parent companies. Famously, IBM invented the card punch, certain classes of typewriters, and was involved in the creation of modern computers and software.

With the arrival of the Internet, IBM has created new lines of products and services, attempting to become a sort of all-in-one technology solution for hardware, software, networking, website management, data analysis, and other computing tasks. IBM has continued to grow since the year 2000, adding more than 100,000 new employees (many through acquisitions) and expanding its product offerings. Despite its ability to adapt, IBM continues to face challenges in successfully integrating its wide variety of products and services. In the realm of business intelligence, for example, IBM deploys a product called Cognos that faces stiff competition from companies that, because of the scope of their operations, can remain agile in the face of shifting market needs and dedicate a concentrated focus to providing personalized business intelligence solutions to customers.

Fortune has identified IBM as the second largest firm in the U.S. for number of workers, with 433,362 reported in 2012. The company was originally headquartered in New York City, NY and in 1964 moved to Armonk, Town of North Castle, NY, where it remains to the present day. IBM is a publicly traded company with Virginia M. Rometty as chief executive officer, and in 2012 reported a revenue of $104.5 billion.

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